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August 28, 1942.
PACIFIC FLEET TACTICAL BULLETIN NO. 2-42 (REVISED)
1. Enclosure (A) is forwarded herewith as a revision of Fleet Tactical Bulletin 2-42 of February 10, 1942, embodying various changes and corrections resulting from the experience gained since the original edition was published. Important changes of the former Instructions are summarized as follows:
Other changes are primarily corrections of typographical errors or suggestions for refinements in rigging.
C. W. NIMITZ.
P. V. Mercer,
FUELING AT SEA MANUAL
1. It is the purpose of this manual to make available in easily accessable form, the knowledge gained from experience of many ships in fueling at sea. The general arrangement is as follows: Section I: a full and detailed discussion of principles involved, equipment, arrangement, preparation and procedure for oilers and fueling ships; Section II: a brief outline tabulation of steps of procedure for all ships followed by summaries of steps applicable to each individual type of ships being fueled; Section III: an appendix which contains lists of blueprints, bills of materials, allowance lists, specifications and description of hoses, etc. Thus, this manual will serve to instruct an officer to whom the exercise is totally unfamiliar and will also serve as a reference source of specific information.
2. This arrangement is necessarily repetitious as a whole, but lends itself to convenient reference form.
3. This pamphlet is arranged for fueling from a fleet oiler. The principles involved are equally applicable if a battleship or an auxiliary is to deliver the oil.
4. It will be noted that the stress line included in some plans previously issued is no longer included in any plan. The employment of bights in the hose is to prevent undue strain in the fuel hose itself.
Section I - ELEMENTS OF FUELING AT SEA
101. Fueling at sea is a military operation which will normally be necessary only by reason of Fleet or ship movements in a theater far from a base, and therefore exposed to belligerent operations. It is evident that the entire operation must be conducted in the least possible time in order to reduce to the minimum the period during which two vessels are particularly vulnerable by reason of their condition of alongside towing. Even during drill it should be assumed that attack is imminent, and no effort should be spared to reduce the time required.
102. The operation must be conducted in a manner that will permit immediate cessation of operations for offensive action against a chance belligerent. All gear and rigging must be constantly tended and the handling crew must be trained to disconnect everything and return all gear instantly when so ordered.
103. In scheduling fueling at sea consideration must be given to the small number of men in the crew of an oiler. The over all time required to fuel a number of ships is important. Changes in rigging to accommodate different types of ships must be avoided to reduce the time interval between receiving ships alongside and to reduce the load on the oiler's crew. Greatest efficiency will be achieved when a major portion of a fleet is to be fueled, if each oiler is scheduled to fuel only one type of ship until all of that type are finished.
(a) The products furnished by the different classes of oilers are as follows:
* - In 5 gal. tins.
(b) Fuel oil carried is Standard Navy Fuel Oil.
(c) It is difficult if not impossible to obtain accurate ullage at sea. Quantities invoiced are the most accurate obtainable under the conditions but must be expected to contain minor errors.
(d) A.A. ammunition may be furnished if requested in advance.
(e) Small quantities of provisions may occasionally be furnished to small ships if requested.
105. Fueling at sea is accomplished while the heavier ship tows the other alongside. All oilers tow all classes of ships smaller than carriers and battleships, and oilers of the CIMARRON class tow battleships. Destroyers and small craft will be towed and fueled on both sides of oilers simultaneously
if weather permits. Large ships will normally be fueled only on the port side of the oilers.
106. The operation of towing for fueling at sea is not to be considered a dead weight towing task. It is more properly an exercise in position keeping aided by a tow line. The towed ship should use her engines to make a speed equal to that of the towing ship so that no strain will be kept on the towline. It will be found easier to maintain position in this manner and the life of the tow line will be increased. The tow line will serve to check sudden surges due to the sea.
107. Type plans for fueling each class of ship have been drawn up by Navy Yards and furnished to all oilers and applicable ships. These plans should be consulted prior to preparing for fueling at sea. It must be remembered however, that these plans are general in nature and can not be followed exactly, by any ship. Experience has shown that they contain errors. They are valuable for showing a general arrangement and each ship must adapt this arrangement to its own particular characteristics, keeping in mind the general principles involved and discussed in the following pages. A list of type plans will be found in Section III of this pamphlet. Attention is again invited to the fact that the stress lines shown on some plans are no longer employed in any plan. The original purpose of these lines was to avoid dangerous strains on the hose. Experience has shown that the use of bights will eliminate danger of such strain.
STANDARD HOSE RIG.
108. It may be necessary at times for an oiler to fuel several ships of different types in rapid succession. Oilers' crews are small. They can not change the hose rig to suit the individual features of each ship except by the expenditure of hours and minutes that can not be afforded. If the interval between ships coming alongside can be reduced ten minutes each for six ships an additional ship might be fueled in the same total elapsed time. A standard hose rig and standard procedure are therefore prescribed for delivering fuel oil to all types of ships and each receiving ship must adapt its needs to it.
109. The standard rig for supply of fuel oil consists of a 6" hose forward and another one aft. If destroyers or other ships requiring 4" hose are to be fueled, a section of 4" hose will be connected to the delivery end of the standard rig.
110. A 4" diesel hose will be prepared and rigged on deck for delivery of diesel oil at the after fueling station. For fueling submarines or vessels with smaller diesel filling connections, a 2½" hose will be connected to the delivery end of the 4" hose. Vessels having fueling connections of other sizes will furnish their own reducers to connect to the 2½" hose. Gasoline will be delivered through a 2½" hose put over forward or aft at an appropriate station. This hose is so light that it is easily handled and no special rig is prescribed.
111. The course steered is important insofar as it effects:
A slight lee is produced when the wind or sea, which ever predominates, is about two points on the "unengaged" bow. Under average conditions, this course has proved to be the optimum. The senior officer engaged in the exercise shall set the course prior to the approach. After all lines have been secured, permission to change course may be requested if considered desirable. Changes should be executed using a small rudder angle. The towed ship will tend to ride ahead during turn to right or left. Where wind and sea conditions are fairly mild and tactical considerations so require, it will be found that fueling may safely be conducted on almost any heading with ships experienced at fueling.
should be made as directed by these heavy ships. Changes should be made in increments of not more than 10 degrees, steadying on each course before another change. Constant exchange of information regarding ship's headings will do much to coordinate this evolution. The towing ship should turn at a constant rate, the towed ship varying rudder angle to maintain relative position. A ship on the "outside" of the turn will have to increase speed, or if on the "inside" will have to decrease speed.
113. Recent exercises indicated that, while towing, the two ships carry rudder toward each other. In MARYLAND-BRAZOS exercises, MARYLAND carried about 7 degrees right rudder and BRAZOS 17 degrees left rudder to maintain steady course. BRAZOS found it most comfortable to steer a course diverging about two degrees from the base course. In another case TENNESSEE towing NECHES, NECHES used 7 degrees left rudder (towards TENNESSEE). The amount of rudder required by the oiler will be governed by condition of loading.
114. The standard speed for the ship which is being approached is 8 knots. After the tow line is secured, speed of the towed ship's engines should be reduced by about 0.1 to 0.2 knot. A heavy strain should never be imposed on the tow line.
115. When all gear is rigged, speed may be increased by ½ knot increments if weather and sea permit, but attention must be given to the danger of seas being taken aboard tankers, when fully loaded, as speed is increased. It has been found that 8 knots is the maximum permissible speed in heavy weather. When fueling submarines, consideration must be given to their low freeboard and the effect of the oilers bow wave when deciding on the speed. Experience indicates that the ship being towed should endeavor to maintain the same speed through the water as the towing ship. There will then be no strain on the tow line, which will be used solely as a preventer in case the towed ship, by some inadvertence, tends to lose position. The whole operation is simplified and expedited and the wear on manila is greatly lessened.
The speed will be designated within these limitations, by the Senior Officer engaged.
117. Carriers, battleships and cruisers will tow under easy control at a distance of from sixty to eighty feet from the oiler. Lighter ships can be handled safely at even less distances. Actual distance can be measured by means of the distance line described in paragraph 160. A distance of about fifty feet between ships' sides at the fueling point is recommended when fueling destroyers.
118. All lines passed between the ships will be handled by messengers. Messengers shall be in good condition and in one piece. Messenger shall be spliced instead of knotted to permit passing through blocks.
119. A line throwing gun will always be used in passing lines between ships. This use of line throwing guns is essential to avoid the time lost by short throws. Operators of the guns should be cautioned not to aim high enough to cause their lines to cross over rigging or other high obstructions. At the distance involved, these guns will shoot with considerable accuracy. The cotton gun line will always be attached to a heaving line.
120. The heaving line will be attached to a 25 fathom length of 21 thread which in turn is bent on to a 3½" line. For larger lines, a 3¼" and then a 5" messenger, each 25 fathoms long, shall be bent on. All lines with messengers attached shall be made up free for running prior to the start of the exercise. When the heaving line and messenger are passed they must be passed out only as rapidly as they are taken in by the other ship. Trailing of bights of lines in the water must be kept to the absolute minimum if the operation is to be expedited. Ships handling messengers will find it to their advantage to use winches and capstans. A snatch block rigged inboard of the towing bitts to act as a fair lead for towline messenger and such other snatch block fairleads as may be necessary to allow the messengers to be run in by hand will expedite running of lines on vessels having slow moving deck winches.
121. A study should be made to reduce to a minimum the time required to pass gear. As soon as all lines are made fast, heaving lines and messengers must be returned to the ship which furnished them, where they are to be arranged in such manner as will most facilitate returning the heavy parts at the completion of the exercise. This is so obvious that it should not require mention here. Nevertheless, failure to return the messengers prior to time for casting off frequently has caused inexcusable delay, and might prevent quick separation of the ships in case of emergency or fouling or parting of lines.
122. The towline should be taken aboard the towed ship at a point so located that when the ship is in position the imaginary line of the towline extended will cut the centerline of the towed ship at its pivoting point. If taken aboard forward of this point, the bow will be pulled in and distance keeping will be difficult. Assuming that a ship is thus towed by a line to its starboard bow, excessive left rudder will be required. If taken aboard aft of this point, the bow will be thrown out and excessive right rudder will be required. If taken aboard at the proper point, the ship will steer easily with very little rudder. It must be noted that when the towed ship is out of position, ahead or behind, close in or far out, the angle of the tow line extended with the ship's center-line is changed, and steering characteristics will change. All difficulties are minimized as strain on the towline is reduced. Ships should endeavor to maintain position without riding on the tow line.
123. Ships of 5000 tons and over are towed by a line of adjustable length consisting of a 2 part 10" manila, averaging 140 feet effective length, run through a 24" snatch block which in turn is attached to a 1½" steel wire pendant. The standing part of the manila line should be secured at the forward bitts and run through the forward chock of the towing ship and the running part should re-enter through the first chock aft of the anchor capstan, and by means of suitable fair-leads be run to the capstan. The steel pendant is 125 feet long for most oilers. For TIPPECANOE class it should be 85 feet long.
124. When towing heavy ships, the capstan should be used to tend the tow line, easing out when an excessive strain is observed, and hauling in excessive slack. Care must be taken to maintain the towline as constantly as possible at its predetermined length. The tow line may part unless tended as above. On at least one occasion, the fueling went very successfully while the line was tended and the operation was so easy that the line was eventually secured to the bitts. About two minutes later the line parted.
125. Tow lines must pass through chocks and fairleads rounded through the largest radius available to avoid undue strain on the fibres at the outer circumference of the bend. Otherwise, the line will part. Regardless of the radius of these fittings, chafing gear should be provided where possible. On destroyers a block of wood with chafing gear should be placed along waterway combing in the wake of bitts to lift tow line clear of the sharp edge of combing.
126. The end of the steel tow line is fitted with a special thimble designed to fit into a towing pelican hook on the towed ship. In some cases this thimble will not fit over the tongue of the pelican hook and sometimes it will not pass easily through the appropriate chock. The fueling ship
must be prepared for such a contingency by rigging in advance a 1½" steel wire strap with one end secured to the bitts. The other end should have an eye-splice. When the towline is received aboard, the eye-splice on the strap is run through the thimble of the towing pendant and back to the pelican hook. The strap must be long enough for both parts to ride through the chock, so that the towing pendant is completely outside the ship.
128. The towing ship will stop the tow line to the rail (outboard and clear) with light lashings. Retrieving lines will be made fast to the tow line at convenient intervals (about 20') and to the life lines, in order to expedite re-rigging at the conclusion of each fueling.
129. A 3½" or 4" line will be secured by shackle to a padeye or wire bridle in the middle of the upper cheek of the 24" snatch block by which to suspend it from any convenient boom, for the double purpose of tending the block to prevent tumbling and consequent fouling of the manila, and to assit in retrieving the block upon completion of the exercises. (Note: This detail is not shown in type plans as yet.)
130. It has been found that destroyers and small craft handle best if a tow line is not used. If desired by the commanding officers, a manila tow line is led directly to the towing bitts of destroyers, submarines and small craft. A 10" tow line is used for destroyers, an 8" line for smaller ships.
131. The spring line is used when towing light ships alongside. This spring line is of 8" manila. It is passed and tended by the towing ship to the destroyer, submarine, minesweeper or other craft at a point forward of the chock where the tow line is taken aboard. The object of the spring line is to check the motion of the towed ship to prevent it from riding so far outboard as to endanger the oil hose.
132. A spring line of 8" manila may be used when towing heavy ships. In view of the weights involved when a tanker fuels a cruiser, battleship or heavy auxiliary, it is doubtful whether the spring line will check the outward movement of the towed ship. This line will not be used unless desired by the towed ship. If so desired, the towed ship will pass the spring line and tend it. Cruisers, carriers and small ships have reported easier operations when the spring line is not used. Its use is not recommended.
133. The spring line shall always be passed over the tow line from a point forward of the towing chocks on the fueled ship. It should tend very nearly as a breast line. It must be tended constantly, and rendered when a strain is put on it.
FUEL OIL HOSE
134. The standard fuel oil hose rig of an oiler consists of two six inch hoses suspended, by 2 saddles on each hose, one from the foremast or forward kingpost, the other from the mainmast or after kingpost. When ready for fueling, each hose runs from a special quick closing valve at the deck connection, with a little slack, to the first saddle, then dips in a generous bight and up the outboard saddle, and dropping another bight, the outer end is suspended at the boom head. When the hose is passed, the end is slacked away as the receiving ship pulls it in by means of a "hose line" previously passed to her. The outboard saddle is lowered, after a bight line secured to it has been taken by the receiving ship, until it is supported by both ships.
136. A 4" gasoline hose is likewise prepared on deck forward for interchange with the 6" line if a carrier is to be fueled. A carrier will be gassed only from the forward station. The 4" gasoline hose for transfer of gasoline to carriers will be handled in the same fashion as described in section 134 for handling fuel oil hose.
137. Oilers will pass over a 2½" gasoline hose to other than carriers, either forward or aft as requested. Receiving ships will have laid out on deck gasoline hose connected to the gasoline filling connection ready to make the connection to the oiler hose.
138. With the exception of 10,000 ton light cruisers, most combatant ships are fitted to receive gasoline well forward on the forecastle. The gasoline filling connections vary in size from 1½" to 2½". Receiving ships will provide necessary reducing couplings required to connect this hose to the oilers 2½" hose.
DIESEL OIL HOSE
140. A 4" diesel line is prepared on deck for interchange with the after fuel oil line if required. A diesel drive ship will be fueled only from the after station. This hose will be rigged in the same manner as 6" hose. A "bight line" will not be used on submarine hose.
141. Diesel oil will be furnished to other than diesel powered ships by means of the 2½" gasoline hose. After delivery of diesel oil, this hose must be washed out with gasoline. If both gasoline and diesel oil are to be furnished, gasoline should always be delivered before the delivery of diesel oil.
OILERS' HOSE RIG
A. MAKE UP
143. Type plans provide for two 6" fuel oil hoses, one forward and one aft. Make-up of each fuel hose in the oiler will be as follows: A 50' section of lightweight collapsible hose; a 20' section of standard hose to which the bight saddle is secured; a second 50' length of lightweight hose; a second 20' length of standard hose over the second saddle; a 50' section of lightweight hose; and a 20' section of standard hose to which the hose hauling line is stopped. Some oilers, with short booms, may require an additional 20' length of standard hose where it connects to the oiler's piping system. Attention is invited, however, to the fact that excessive length of hose entails additional and unnecessary weight and will increase, rather than decrease, the difficulty of the exercise. The above prescribed arrangement is 210' long, which is considered to be ample for any fueling under normal conditions. The outboard end of the hose will be closed by means of a wooden plug or screw cap. The new lightweight hose is extremely flexible, and will collapse in a manner similar to fire hose. This fact must be given consideration before rigging is attached to it, since passing a stop about it will result in stricture.
and the ship being fueled. Easing out lines from the oiler to near the end of the fuel oil hose and to the bight saddles are used. These lines, of 4" to 4½" manila, will be rigged in the oiler as single whips for speed in control. They will also be used for retrieving the hose.
146. It has been experienced that the outer saddle line may become fouled on the inboard saddle with consequent parting of the outboard line. In order to prevent damage to this line, when the fueling rig is being prepared, the inboard saddle and hose should be served with a hammock or other suitable material.
147. When the boom rig is such that blocks supporting inner and outer saddles are so close as to cause damage of the blocks fouling each other, a triangular plate shackle to support the blocks will prevent casualties.
B. BIGHT LINE. (Not used in fueling destroyers, submarines and small craft.)
148. Hose handling lines are passed from the oiler to the ship being fueled. The first is the bight line, of 5" manila, which is attached to the outboard saddle. This must be taken by the fueling ship to a snatch block at the highest point possible, in the vicinity where the hose is taken aboard, and thence to a winch. The function of this line is to support the saddle jointly with the bight line from the oiler. As the ships move in or out, or roll, the saddle must be raised or lowered to prevent an excessive bight from trailing in the water or to pay out more hose if the bight rides too high above the water. A small bight can trail with no damage to hose or gear. If the two ships roll in opposite direction, however, the hose will rise above the water and the bight lines will tend towards a horizontal attitude and take on a breaking strain if not promptly slacked. If the lines are not suspended from the highest possible point, this strain will set in very rapidly. A snatch block under the bridge overhang is recommended for the forward line.
149. The bight lines must be tended, by both the oiler and receiving ship, constantly and quickly, by alert, intelligent men. A fast moving winch must be employed. The winch men on both ships must try to keep the angle between the bight line and the vertical and between the easing out line and the vertical equal; i. e., an upright V. This matter is the most vulnerable part of the whole operation of fueling at sea. The snatch blocks may be suspended from boat booms, airplane booms, or bridge superstructure, etc. The location chosen is not important if it is high and in the vicinity of the fueling station. Since it will take a heavy strain, it must be secured by a steel wire strap or a shackle. The oiler must take care in securing the bight lines to the saddle to make sure that lines tended by the receiving ship and the oiler are not crossed.
C. HOSE LINE
150. A heaving line is attached to a 3½" manila "hose line" which is secured to a collar on the hose about 20 feet from its outer end. This line is stopped to the hose at 3 feet intervals and at the end by 3 or 4 turns of 21 thread. As the hose comes aboard, these stops should be cut one by one, until sufficient free hose is available for handling, as appropriate for the rig in each ship. It is desirable that these stops be replaced before the hose is returned, if time and opportunity permits.
The receiving ship should reeve the "hose line" through a snatch block inboard of the ship's side and about 6 feet above the deck; this will bring the end of the hose on board expeditiously to a place where it can be readily handled. As the receiving ship takes a strain on the "hose line," the oiler slacks away on her "easing out" line, controlling it so that the hose does not touch the water. When safely on board, the oiler completely slacks away the easing out line.
RECEIVING SHIP FUELING STATIONS
152. Quick couplings, "hose line" and "bight lines" must be let go with despatch in case of emergency. Constant and careful tending of bight lines, easing out lines, tow line, spring line and 24" snatch block is required. However, it is considered nearly impossible to prevent hose bights and tow lines from occassionally dipping into the water as ships move in and out and roll towards each other, especially if there is an appreciable chop or swell running. It is preferable to permit this to occur rather than to put too much strain on gear in an attempt to keep hoses and lines entirely out of the water at all times.
FUELING SHIP HOSE RIG
154. It is essential when handling 6" hose that there be ample working space and hoses must have slack at the station on deck of the fueling ship where the oiler's hose is to be connected. When possible, hose should be provided by the fueling ship and run from the port side fueling connection across the ship to a convenient spot near the starboard side. This will provide ample slack and a straight lead toward the oiler's hose where it is taken aboard. When starboard or center line fueling connections are used sufficient hose must be laid out to obtain the flexibility and a straight lead prescribed above. Many minutes will be saved in connecting up if this method is employed. Coupling hoses will be facilitated if a heavy block is provided to put under the end of the hose to lift the flange a few inches off the deck.
QUICK RELEASE COUPLINGS
156. Quick release couplings will be used to connect all oiler's hoses to ship's hoses. It is intended that eventually all ships will be provided with identical couplings, all parts of which are interchangeable. When that has been accomplished the ends of oiler's hoses will be fitted with the male part of a coupling and the fueling ship's hoses will be provided with a female part. Until this condition has been reached, the fueling ship will be expected to provide a complete quick release coupling already bolted onto its own hose, and bolts ready to bolt on the oiler's hose 4" quick release couplings are screwed on. Quick release of hoses will thus be possible but not quick coupling. Ships not provided with quick release couplings should so advise oilers in advance. Oilers will then attach complete couplings to all hoses before passing them. Oilers will always furnish quick couplings to OMAHA class vessels.
The telephone cable, with instrument, at fueling stations will be passed by the oiler. Other telephone cables, and instruments, will be passed by the ship being fueled. When fueling submarines, only telephones from bridge to bridge will be used and will be furnished by oiler.
158. A trolley line of 4" manila will be passed from the after deck house or air craft cargo deck, if provided, of the oiler at a height sufficient to permit hanging the provision bag on a block suspended from it, to a point located at a similar height above the after deck of the ship being fueled. This line will be secured in the oiler and must be tended by means of a winch on board the ship receiving provisions. It is essential that the line be kept taut and it will be found impossible to do so if the line is tended by hand. The point of suspension of the trolley line must be of sufficient height for the bag to clear obstructions easily having in mind the catenary resulting from the distance between ships.
159. Material to be delivered by this means should be assembled at the whip and loaded in the bags prior to commencement of the exercise. The first bag to go over should be removed at the receiving end and the block retrieved. As the next bag is being sent over, the first bag shall be emptied. The second bag is removed from the hook and the empty first bag sent back for another load. This is repeated until the delivery is completed. Personnel can be transferred by use of this whip and a light boatswain's chair.
160. As soon as possible after tow and spring lines are secured, the towed ship passes over a heaving line marked with large strips of bunting to show distances from towed ship as follows: 50' red, 60' yellow, 70' blue, 80' white, 90' blue, 100' yellow, 110' red. It must be located at a point well forward in clear view of the conning officers of both ships. The end (zero feet) is secured at the towing ship's rail. The towed ship tends the line from a point directly opposite the secured end when the towed ship is in position. When this point has been determined, the line should not be shifted forward or aft of it, as it's divergence from perpendicularity also indicates when the fueling ship moves ahead or behind position. The line must be kept taut. The bunting marks showing against the towed ship's rail clearly indicates the distance between ships.
161. Oilers rig 9 heavy cane fenders lashed in bundles of 3 on their port side. They must be suspended from deck by vertical lines to assist in retrieving and must also be secured with substantial lines leading well forward and aft. Fueling ships rig cane fenders over vulnerable points.
162. Battleships and carriers, if desired, may send over a gyro-repeater to the bridge of the oiler. This will reduce telephone conversation and will be of marked assistance in station keeping. (Note: At such time as equipment can be obtained for the oilers, the above will be modified to require the towing ship to provide the gyro-repeater. It is obvious that the towed ship, which is charged with station keeping, derives more advantage from this arrangement.)
PREPARATION - OILER
PREPARATIONS - FUELING SHIP
3. All ships fueling from oilers should be reminded that chafing gear should be rigged to the deck coaming where hose comes on to the deck.
For TIPPECANOE class, when the tow line is stopped to the ship's rail, in preparation for receiving the ships alongside, a small line (2 or 3 inch manila) should be run from blocks at the boat davit heads and secured to that part of the steel pendant stopped directly beneath. When the messenger has been passed and the fueling ship is taking away the tow line, the lines from the boat davits should be allowed to run free. Upon completion of fueling, when the tow line is returned, two or three men on each of the lines from the boat davit can run away with these lines and the tow line is quickly retrieved and is placed in preparation for the next ship. This arrangement can be improvised on other classes of oilers as well.
The steel pendant on the manila tow line for this class oiler should be 85' instead of 120' This shorter pendant being used, the 24" block will ride under the paravane davit so that it may be supported by this davit with consequent aid to prevent tumbling.
201. The Senior Officer engaged will select (and inform oiler) the course and speed. Speed should be approximately 8 knots. Course selected should be that which will place wind or sea (whichever is controlling) 1 to 2 points on the clear bow of the towing ship. If ships are being fueled on both sides simultaneously the course should be directly into the weather or to give the smaller ship the lee.
204. After towing ship has two-blocked "Afirm," towed ship, when ready, two-block "Afirm," meaning "I am starting to approach." Towed ship increase speed two to four knots and veer out slightly to come up alongside on parallel course with about 80' between sides of ships. Running on time or by accurate knowledge of deceleration, reduce speed to that specified, at such time that towed ship will ride properly into position (a little ahead, rather than behind). Oilers, in particular, must be on the alert not to get caught in the screw suction of the larger ships as they range alongside, as the effect is quite noticeable.
205. When stem of towed ship is abreast the midship point of towing ship, towing ship send over tow line, easing out freely the heaving line and messenger, but not so fast as to let a bight form in the sea; then, as the slack is taken up, cast loose the lashings on the towline.
206. When tow line is secured on board, towed ship lessen speed a few turns at a time to the established standard. It will be understood that as the towed ship rides to the tow line, the speed of the towing ship may be reduced by 0.1 to 0.2 knots. Reducing speed too rapidly will place too great a strain upon tow line, chocks, bitts, etc.
207. Towing ship adjust length of tow line and tend tow line to prevent undue slack or strain. The towed ship advise on length of tow line to permit use of minimum rudder, and provide best position of hoses.
208. As soon as tow line messenger is well in hand, large ships will, if desired, send over heaving line, messenger and spring line in succession. Towed ship tend spring line, snubbing or making fast only when ordered, but keeping slack out of the water. Oiler pass spring line to destroyers, submarines, and small ships, before passing tow line and tend same.
209. As soon as ships are secured, it will be found desirable on practically all occasions to increase speed to at least 10 knots when oiling from BRAZOS class and to 12 knots (or more) with CIMARRON class. This will improve the control available to the towed ship and will permit steadier, more comfortable riding. Wind and sea, however, may limit the speed, the limiting speed being reached when the oilers deck becomes too wet to afford safe footing.
210. When riding comfortably, and upon order of the fueling ship, oiler sends over by heaving line or line throwing gun, the fuel oil hose "hauling" and "bight" lines and combatant ship take fuel and gasoline hose on board and couple up. It will not be necessary to await any contemplated increase in speed before sending over the fuel hose.
1. The carrier will tow and control the operations.
2. Use Mare Island Plan 50215.
3. The oilers will supply fuel oil from their after fuel oil hose until delivery of gasoline is completed. The forward fuel oil hose will then be passed. Tankers whose rig permits will use two 6" hoses simultaneously with 4" gasoline hose.
4. The gasoline delivery line (42) will be handled from the foremast of the oilers.
5. After completion of gasoline delivery the oiler will lay gasoline fueling hose on deck and pick up fuel oil hose for delivery of fuel oil forward.
6. Rate of delivery per hose:
500 gals/min from CIMARRON Class.
295 gals/min from BRAZOS Class.
1,800 gals/min from CIMARRON Class, per hose.
1,500 gals/min from BRAZOS Class, per hose.
1. The battleship will tow oilers of BRAZOS and SEPULGA class and control the operations. Oilers of CIMARRON class will tow battleships, but CIMARRON Class will make approach and get clear on completion.
2. Use Mare Island Plan No. 51607 as amended.
3. Two 6" fuel oil hose connections will be used
4. The oiler will send over a 2½" gasoline hose for delivery of gasoline.
5. Position - appproximately bow to bow for all oilers.
6. Delivery rate -
1,800 gal/min per 6" hose from CIMARRON Class.
1,500 gal/min per 6" hose from BRAZOS Class.
1,300 gal/min per 6" hose from SEPULGA Class.
100 gal/min from CIMARRON Class.
100 gal/min from BRAZOS Class.
1. The Cruiser will be towed and control the exercise.
2. The general arrangement of the tanker and the Light Cruiser lines and gear are shown in Construction and Repair Blueprint number 365910 (Mare Island No. 50158). Special equipment for fueling a cruiser at sea from a tanker is manufactured in accordance with Construction and Repair Drawing No. 390572; see Hull Allowance list, sheet 274-F.
3. Two 6" fuel oil hose connections will be used.
4. The oiler will send over a 2½" gasoline hose for the delivery of gasoline at the after station.
6. Gasoline Hose:
The oiler's gasoline tanks are forward and from there a hose will be led aft and passed over. The 2½" gasoline hose for the transfer of gasoline will, in general, be handled in the same manner as the fuel oil hose is handled except that the tanker will not have a boom available for giving elevation to the bight line. Running the bight line from the block rigged to the port kingpost on the superstructure deck of the tanker, however, will give adequate height. Weights involved are so moderate that they can be handled by hand. The oiler's gasoline hose is 2½". Therefore, cruisers will provide a 2½" x 2" reducing coupling for making the connection.
The cruiser has a 2" quick release coupling which will be attached to 2" hose.
Ground connections must be provided.
7. The light cruisers are prepared to take two fueling hoses from the oiler, if available.
The fueling connections on the light cruisers of the BROOKLYN - ST. LOUIS Class are at frames 63 to 103, port and starboard. The light cruisers will connect up four lengths of 6" fueling hose to the fueling connections to be used. Three (3) sections will be laid out on deck with the inboard end connected to the cruiser's filling connection and the outboard end fitted with the 6" "quick release coupling," and the latter will be connected to the free end of the oiler's hose. The cruisers have diesel oil filling connections forward and aft in the vicinity of the bunker fuel oil filling connections. These are 2" connections to which gasoline hose may be attached after aviation gasoline has been delivered, if the tanker has no other hose available. Cruisers shall provide a 2½" x 2" reducing coupling for connecting the oiler's 2½" diesel oil hose.
1. The cruiser will be towed and control the exercise.
2. Use Mare Island Blueprint 50158 dated 18 October, 1939.
3. Two fuel oil hose connections will be used.
4. The oiler will send over a 2½" gasoline hose for the delivery of gasoline.
5. Bight line may be run through block on end of boat davit or boat boom.
6. The oiler will furnish quick release coupling.
7. Fueling rate:
1800 gal/min/hose from CIMARRON Class.
1500 gal/min/hose from BRAZOS Class.
1000 gal/min/hose from SEPULGA Class.
100 gal/min from CIMARRON Class.
100 gal/min from BRAZOS Class.
8. The tow line is to be secured on the cruiser to a pelican hook which is attached to a 1½" towing pendant passed around the centerline bitts at frame 22½.
9. The light cruisers are prepared to use two fueling hoses and should do so whenever possible. The fueling connections are located at frames 40 and 93 centerline. The aircraft boom can be used by the cruiser to handle the after hose. Appropriate distribution of oil must be made by the cruiser prior to coming alongside in order to expedite the fueling.
1. The oiler will tow.
2. Follow instructions in Bureau of Construction and Repair Manual (Chapter 14, Section 5.), or Destroyers, Battle Force, Standard Instructions for fueling Destroyers, and Standard Instructions for fueling Destroyers at sea (File S55-1 Serial 0500) issued by Comdespac.
3. Two 6" fuel oil hoses will be used with one 4" hose on the end of each.
4. Destroyers may be towed on either side with tow line from frame 95, CIMARRON class, spring line from frame 70. Other oilers lead tow lines from the forward chocks. If it is desired that destroyers be fueled on both sides simultaneously, the Unit Commander must inform the oiler in sufficient time to permit rigging for fueling on the starboard side by means of the special fueling at sea booms provided for that purpose. Oil will be delivered on the port side through the 6" hoses already rigged, plus one additional length of 4" hose coupled on to the end thereof, as previously described.
5. Position destroyer with bridge abreast bridge of all classes of oilers.
6. Destroyers have been successfully fueled in heavy weather while using only an 8" breast line to the after bitts on the forecastle of the destroyer, and tended by the oiler's winch. No tow line is used in the method, position being kept by varying speed, one or two revolutions at a time. This method saves time and gear and is recommended.
7. For destroyers with forward fueling stations just below the whaleboat, a snatch block rigged under the bridge overhang is desirable together with an extra line attached to the hose by stops and made fast to the hose about 30 feet from the end. This lead will allow the hose to be held well out of the water and facilitate coupling up and releasing the hose.
8. On destroyers a block of wood with chafing gear should be placed along waterway combing in the wake of bitts to lift towline clear of the sharp edge of combing.
1. The oiler will tow.
2. Tow line, breast line and distance line will be tended by oiler.
3. 180' of 4" hose will be put over by forward station.
4. Submarine take "hose line" to a block on the torpedo handling davit, cutting stops as necessary to couple up. This will take the place of the "bight line," keep the hose out of the water and out of the way of the men on deck.
5. Oiler will pass telephone cable to bridge—none will be used at fueling stations.
6. Rate of delivery:
500 gal/min by CIMARRON Class.
1. The oiler will tow.
2. No blueprint is available.
3. One fuel hose with 4" terminal will be sent over from forward station.
4. Gasoline or diesel oil will not be delivered except in special circumstances.
5. Tow line of 10" or 8" manila.
6. Tow line from frame 95, spring line from frame 70, CIMARRON class.
7. Tow line direct to after bitts on forecastle of minesweeper.
8. Position minesweeper with after forecastle fueling connection abreast oiler's forward fueling station.
225. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR FUELING PLANES.
A. Seaplanes will be fueled at sea by oilers in the following manner:
1. See Mare Island Blueprint 53512. Oiler will provide diesel and/or gasoline delivery lines six to each side as required.
2. Each hose will be 100'—l½" with quick closing nozzle and ground connection.
3. Oiler will provide riding lines, stern lines and fenders at each fueling connection.
4. Locations of fueling connections will be indicated by white markers on each side.
227. SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR FUELING FROM U. S. S. HALAWA AND U. S. S. KALOLI.
1. U. S. S. HALAWA and U. S. S. KALOLI are small tankers which may, under special circumstances, fuel certain vessels.
2. These tankers will always be towed by the vessel receiving fuel except that they will tow or provide a spring line to submarines.
3. No blue prints are available.
4. These tankers have no winches for handling hoses or lines and their crews are small. The vessel receiving fuel will normally provide and tend hose except tankers will provide hose to submarines. In emergency, some sections of 6", 4" and l½" hose could be provided by the tankers but the hose rig should be tended by ships receiving fuel. HALAWA has small davits and KALOLI small booms just aft of midships deck house to assist in keeping the hose out of the water. If the ship to be fueled does not have proper booms to support the hose the fueling at sea operation could be carried out under only the most favorable weather conditions.
5. Six inch, four inch and two inch quick release couplings are available on HALAWA and KALOLI.
6. Towing bitts on HALAWA are on main deck just forward of the bridge structure. Towing bitts on KALOLI are just aft of the forecastle structure. Vessels will normally be fueled from port side of HALAWA and KALOLI. In emergency and under favorable weather condition, fueling from the tanker's starboard side could be undertaken. Deck fueling connections are located as follows:
8. HALAWA and KALOLI can furnish gasoline and diesel oil to landing boats or seaplanes.
9. The maximum fueling speed for HALAWA and KALOLI is 7 knots.
10. KALOLI does not carry fuel oil.
VESSEL TO BE FUELED WILL:
1. Anchor in berth assigned:
2. When settled down, hoist Afirm at the dip.
3. Two block Afirm when ready to fuel.
4. Send over boat with line handling detail.
5. Adjust riding line so that oiler is about 300' astern.
6. When both ships are secured and riding comfortably, obtain oil hose from oiler.
7. Hoist Baker at dip when connected up and ready to receive oil.
8. Two block Baker when oil is being received.
9. When sufficient fuel has been received, haul down Baker.
10. Cast off fuel oil hose when oiler has signaled that line has been blown clear of oil.
11. Put Afirm at the dip when ready to cast off oiler.
12. Haul down Afirm when oiler has signalled ready to cast off by dipping Afirm. Retrieve riding line.
1. When vessel to be fueled has Afirm at the dip, take station 300' astern and receive riding line.
2. Two block Afirm when secured and ready to send over fuel oil hose.
3. Hoist Baker at the dip when ready to deliver oil.
4. Two block Baker when delivering oil.
5. Stop pumping and haul down Baker when vessel being fueled hauls down Baker.
6. Blow out oil hose with air when vessel being fueled reports ready.
7. Recover fuel oil hose.
8. Dip Afirm when ready to cast off.
9. Haul down Afirm when riding line is cast off.
(a) List of Buships blueprints and data sheets on fueling at Sea.
(b) Bunkering information—A publication compiled by Port Director, 12th Naval District.
(c) Navy Specifications.
Reference: Mare Island Plan 50363, Buships 375973.
Reference: Blueprint M.I. 50215, Buships 365026.
Reference: Blueprint M.I. 51607, Buships 417161.
National Archives & Records Administration, Seattle Branch
Record Group 181, 13th Naval District Commandant's Office Regular Navy Files, 1942-43
Transcribed by RESEARCHER @ LARGE. Formatting & Comments Copyright R@L.
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