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Prepared by the Bureau of Yards and Docks
Navy Department
Washington, D. C.


August, 1942


N.P.D.H. #l-Sup.No.3




Table of Contents

General........................... 1 - 2
Textured Treatment ..................... 3
Types of Coatings...................... 4
Procedure for Typical Application of Textured Treatment .. 5
Non- Textured Treatments .................. 6 - 7
Specifications ....................... 8

  Paint; Camouflage, Resin-Oil-Emulsion Type. Navy Department, Bureau
       of Yards and Docks Typical Specification No, P2, June 1942.
Paint, Camouflage Oleoresinous (Emulslfiable). Corps of Engineers,
        U. S. Army Tentative Specification No. T-1279, May 1, 1942.
Bituminous Emulsions, Camouflage. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army
        Tentative Specification No. T-1224, January 15, 1942.
Note: Specifications published herein are not restricted.




N.P.D.H #l-Sup.No.3
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     1.  General.  The information contained herein has been compiled for reference in connection with the study of measures for reducing the conspicuousness of airplane runways, aprons and other paved areas. It must be borne in mind that many field factors influence the selection of the type of material to be used, as well as the coverage and durability that will be obtained; and considerable judgment must be exercised during any field application.

     2.  Treatments for runways and aprons may be classified broadly as "textured" or "non-textured" and the type of treatment which should be used will depend, first of all, on the porosity of the surface. If the surface is sufficiently roughened or porous to possess natural texture when viewed from the air, the non-textured treatment is indicated. If the surface lacks sufficient natural texture (such as smooth asphalt), a textured treatment is indicated. However, the decision to use a textured treatment will depend on whether or not the additional obscurement obtained from the use of such treatment, when considered in relation to surrounding reference points, justifies the extra time, labor and expense necessary for the application and maintenance of the textured surface.

3.  Textured Treatments.  Textured treatments consist of three steps which are as follows:

   (a) Application of an adhesive primer to the surface. Tests that have been made to date indicate the emulsified asphalt type, such as that covered by U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Tentative Specification T-1224, Class A, to be satisfactory for this purpose. These materials are usually supplied ready for use, and are best applied by means of a portable pressure-type spraying unit. Their approximate coverage is 40 to 50 square feet per gallon. Typical materials of this type are, adhesive HX (SS-A-674 Type 5), made by the American Bitumuls Co., Baltimore, Md., and adhesive No. 3-M-37 made by the Flintkote Co., New York, N. Y.

   (b) Application of the texturing material. Immediately after the adhesive primer is applied, the texturing material should be spread over it, and the surface rolled to uniformity with a light road roller, or a rubber-tired wheel gang roller. Various materials have been tested for texturing purposes, such as wood chips, sawdust, stone chips, pebbles, and slag. Of these materials, wood chips one to two inches long and 1/4 of a square inch, or less, in cross-section (such as hog mill chips or coarse planer shavings) appear to be the most satisfactory. These may be obtained from lumber mills. The use of stone chips, slag, or pebbles, for texturing of landing surfaces, is not considered desirable unless more suitable materials are unavailable. On the other hand, experimentation with flexible materials such as chopped corn cobs, cotton-seed hulls, chopped waste leather, or waste tan bark is to be encouraged, especially where such materials are plentiful and cheap.

   (c) Staining or painting of the texturing materials. A thorough study of all of the available test data suggests that four types of paint or stains merit consideration for this purpose; however, it should be borne in mind that, regardless of which type is used, care must be taken to apply only enough of the material to color the texturing substance. The application of an excessive amount of paint or stain will result in the filling of the voids or interstices, thus destroying the texture.

     4.  Types of Coatings:  The four types of coatings referred to in paragraph 3 (c) above, which are deemed worthy of consideration at this time, are as follows:

   (a) Resin Emulsion Paint, similar to that covered by Bureau of Yards and Docks Typical Specification No. P-2. This type is best applied by spraying, and should be thinned according to the manufacturer's directions. It may be thinned with water for application under normal climatic conditions or with gasoline or mineral spirits for application in very cold or damp weather.

   (b) Oleoreslnous Paint such as that covered by U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Tentative Specification T-1279. This type may also be thinned with water or petroleum solvents (gasoline or mineral spirits) and the manufacturer's directions should be followed as to the amount of thinning required for spraying. When thinned with water an emulsion is formed which will be somewhat similar in properties to the paint covered by Y&D Typical Specification NCK P-J, while thinning with petroleum solvents produces a straight, unemulsifled oleoresinous paint. The choice of thinner is dependent on the weather conditions at the time of application.

   (c) Bituminous Paint, such as that covered by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Tentative Specification T-1224, Class "B". This type should be thinned with water according to the manufacturer's directions and is best applied by spraying. If the texturing substance is


N.P.D.H #l-Sup.No.3

wood, better penetration of the paint is obtained by the dampening of the surface with water before applying. In any case, after the paint is sprayed it is recommended that the surface be drag-broomed to break up any formations of paint skins. One of the undesirable characteristics of this type of paint appears to be its lack of color retention.

(d) Pigmented stain, such as C. K. Williams Co.'s (Easton. Pa.) "Colwood Stain". This material is composed of pigment, water, and glycerine and appears to be quite satisfactory where wood is used as the texturing material. It is best applied by spraying.

     5. Procedure for a Typical Application of Textured Treatment: The application of a typical textured treatment using wood chips is outlined below:

    Surface: Smooth Asphalt.

    Materials: Wood chips; penetration grade bitumuls (asphalt emulsion) HX (SS-A-674 Type 5); and bituminous emulsion paint.

    Coverage: 27 to 38 square feet per gallon for adhesive; 175 to 25Q square feet per gallon for bituminous emulsion paint; 100 square yards per cubic yard of wood chips.

    Method of Application:

    (a) Wash off the surface to be treated by hosing thoroughly with water; then broom the surface until it is clean. After brooming, sprinkle the surface again, this time at the rate of about 1/10 gallon of water per square yard. This final sprinkling will permit of more effective penetration of the surface by the adhesive, the application of which follows.

    (b) Apply the emulsified asphalt by means of a pressure-type spraying unit. The coating should not be heavier than that obtained by using one gallon to each 27 to 36 square feet.

    (c) Immediately after the application of the adhesive, spread the wood chips over the bitumen-covered surface at the rate of about 1/100 cubic yard of chips per square yard of surface.

    (d) After dehydration, the surface should be rolled to uniformity, preferably with a rubber-tired roller or with rubber-tired trucks, and the excess chips then broomed off.

    (e) The surface is now ready for application of paint or stain. If bituminous emulsion paint is used, the surface should be drag-broomed shortly after application to prevent formation of paint skins.

     Note: The type of adhesive used should vary with the regional climate. In no case should it remain sticky or viscous after it has had the texturing material rolled into it. The grade to be used should be determined by tests.

     6.  Non-Textured Treatments. Non-textured treatments consist of the application of a lustreless paint or stain to a surface for the purpose of toning it down. They are usually one-coat applications, and require considerably less time and labor for application and maintenance than do the textured treatments.

     7.  For non-porous surfaces, by which is meant any surface that does not possess suitable natural texture when viewed from the air (for example - smooth asphalt), a resin emulsion, oleoresinous, or bituminous paint (such as has been discussed in paragraph 4 above), color which will blend with the surroundings, may be applied. These same type paints may also be used on porous surfaces if necessary but tests made thus far indicate that most of these paints have a tendency to fill up the pores of the surface, thus considerably reducing the natural texture. For this reason the application of penetrating stains would be much more effective. Stains of this type are still in the experimental stage, some difficulties having been encountered in obtaining an even spray coat and fastness of color. Stains made with an oil base have not stood up well under test.

     8.   Specifications; The specifications for Resin Emulsion Paint, Oleoresinous Paint and Bituminous emulsions cited above, have been reprinted on the following pages for convenient reference.


Navy Department
Yards and Docks
    NO. P2    
June 1942


A-l. Navy Department General Specifications for Inspection of Material, of the issue in effect on date of invitation for bids, forms a part of this specification, and bidders and contractors should provide themselves with the necessary copies.
B-l. Resin emulsion paste as specified herein shall be furnished in one grade and one type only for use as a protective or concealment coating on exterior surfaces.
C-l. The manufacturer is given wide latitude in the selection of raw materials and processes of manufacture, so that he may produce a resin emulsion paste paint of high quality.
D-l. Manufacturing approvals. - A manufacturer furnishing paint under this specification will be required to submit three separate one-quart samples of the material he proposes to supply, together with a production code number, to the Bureau of Yards and Docks Washington, D. C. These samples will be tested for compliance with the requirements of the tests as specified hereinafter.
E-l. Mixing and application. - The material shall be mixed and applied in accordance with the manufacturer's printed directions, however, the quantity of water or other solvent to add to the material shall closely approximate that given in paragraph E-4.
E-2. Composition. - The resin emulsion paint shall consist of a properly incorporated, uniform mixture, of high grade, lime resistant, durable pigments intimately mixed and properly dispersed in a suitable vehicle. The vehicle shall consist of drying oils and resins, or oil extended synthetic resins of the alkyd type, and such emulsifying agents, dryers, mildew pre-ventatlves and stabilizers as may be necessary. The paint when thinned with an equal volume of water shall produce a paint of satisfactory brushing consistency, and a dry film of the following composition:
Pigment-Maximum   68 percent
Minimum   64 percent
 Binder-Maximum   36 percent
Minimum   32 percent
E-3. Properties of ready-mixed paste. - The paint shall be stable under all normal conditions of storage varying from minus 40 degrees F. to plus 140 degrees F. It shall be free from separation, appreciable caking, granulation, hardening in the container, and offensive or irritating odor.
E-4. Brushing, spraying, flowing spreading, and repeating. The paint shall show easy brushing good flowing, and spreading qualities, and shall not give any noticeable pull under a large wall brush. Paint shall be suitable for brushing when thinned with an equal volume of water and for spraying when thinned with 2 parts of water to one part of paint. It shall recoat satisfactorily by both spraying and brushing.


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      E-5 Drying time. - The paint shall set to touch in 4 hours and shall dry hard in 18 hours at 40 degrees F. and 80 percent relative humidity.
E-6. Color shall match standard camouflage colors of the Passive Defense Handbook and the finish produced shall be of the lustreless type with a specular gloss not exceeding a reading of 8 as measured by the 60-degree gloss meter (A.S.T.M. Specification D523-41T). Paints reduced with organic solvents aad those reduced with water shall show no appreciable or objectionable difference in hue or color.
E-7. Solids. - Paint material shall show a total loss of not more than 35 percent when dried for 3 hours at 105 to 110 degrees C.
E-8. Cleansing, chalking, and rubbing. - After the paint has been mixed and applied according to the manufacturer's directions and then allowed to dry for 5 days, marks made with a no. 2 lead pencil shall be easily removable by careful washing with a sponge dampened with soapy water, without appreciably marring the surface, and black cloth shall not be soiled by gentle rubbing on the dry paint film.
E-9. Wet abrasion. - After drying 5 days not more than 1/2 of the film, on an annealed hot-dipped zinc-coated ferrous-metal panel, shall be removed after 5O,000 complete oscillations of the brush when tested in accordance with Federal Specification No. TT-P-88.
E-10. Dry hiding. - The paste paint product when thinned with an equal volume of water and applied to the black and white checkerboard in accordance with Federal Specification No. TT-P-88, shall show complete hiding when spread at a rate of not less than 450 square feet for the colors, and not less than 300 square feet for the white, per gallon of the reduced paint.
E-ll. Flexibility. - One brushed coat on a tin panel after drying for 5 days in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of 77 degrees F. (plus or minus 4 degrees F.) and a relative humidity of 50 percent (plus or minus 4 percent) shall not crack, chip, flake or show loss of adhesion when bent over a 1/8-inch rod.
E-12. Application. - Paint shall be capable of being thinned with water, denatured alcohol, gasoline, petroleum thinner, or turpentine, and of being applied under difficult conditions involving rain, freezing, or hot, dry weather. The paint shall be suitable for application as a protective or concealment coating over wood, concrete, asbestos-cement, metal, glass, masonry, bituminous-coated surfaces or galvanized iron. Application to damp or frosty surfaces shall not prevent drying of the paint film or adversely affect the adhesion.
E-13. Durability. - One brush or spray coat of the paint reduced 1 part of paint to 2 parts of water shall show satisfactory durability and color retention over a period of not less than 6 months on outside exposure. It shall have suitable color retention after an exposure of 200 hours in an accelerated weathering machine equipped with water spray and with a carbon arc enclosed in Corex D filter. Color at the end of outside exposure or accelerated weathering machine exposure shall be approximately the same as control panels not so exposed.
E-14. Mildew resistance. - Paint on exposure shall show no appreciable evidence of mildew growth.
F-l. Methods shall conform to the appliable methods given in Federal Specification No. TT-P-88.
G-l. Packaging. - Unless otherwise specified, commercial packages are acceptable under this specification.
G-2. Packing. - Unless otherwise specified, the subject commodity shall be delivered in sub-stantial commercial containers of the type and size commonly used, and so constructed as to insure safe delivery by common or other carriers to the point of delivery at the lowest rate. Not more than one size container or color of paint shall be packed in a single container.
Q-3. Marking. -
G-3a. Packages. - Unless otherwise specified, packages shall be marked with the name of the


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      material, the color, the quantity contained therein, as defined by the contract or order under which shipment is made, and the name of the manufacturer, and shall be labeled with complete instructions for mixing and applications.
G-3b. Shipping containers. - Unless otherwise specifed, shipping containers shall be marked with the name of the material, the quantity contained therein, as defined by the contract or order under which shipment is made, the name of the contractor, the number of the contract or order, and the gross weight.

















Via Ron Smith National Archives & Records Administration, College Park
Bureau of Ships, General Correspondence 1940-45

Transcribed by RESEARCHER @ LARGE. Formatting & Comments Copyright R@L.

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